The NFL suspended star Dallas Cowboys running back Ezekiel Elliott for six games Friday, concluding after a yearlong investigation that the league rushing leader caused injuries to his then-girlfriend in three separate incidents last summer.
The ruling under the NFL's personal conduct policy came despite prosecutors in Columbus, Ohio, deciding nearly a year ago not to pursue the case in the city where Elliott starred for Ohio State.
According to the letter Elliott received informing him of the suspension, the NFL believed he used "physical force" three times in a span of five days in a Columbus apartment last July resulting in injuries to Tiffany Thompson's face, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, wrists, hips and knees.
The league said its investigation was based on photographs, text messages and other electronic evidence. Commissioner Roger Goodell made his decision based on the league's investigation and in consultation with four advisers, including Hall of Fame player Ken Houston.
Elliott, who turned 22 last month, has three days to appeal the ruling. The NFL Players Association said it was reviewing the decision and had been in touch with Elliott's representatives to consider his options.
The ruling requires Elliott to get an evaluation to determine whether he needs counseling or treatment, and to show proof that he is following up on any recommendations.
If Goodell's ruling stands, Elliott will go on the suspended list the first week of the regular season and be eligible to return to the active roster Oct. 23. His first possible game would be Week 8 at Washington.
NFL special counsel for conduct Todd Jones wrote in the letter to Elliott that advisers "were of the view that there is substantial and persuasive evidence supporting a finding that (Elliott) engaged in physical violence against Ms. Thompson on multiple occasions during the week of July 16, 2016."
Last September, the office of Columbus City Attorney Richard Pfeiffer cited conflicting and inconsistent information in the evidence in deciding against criminal charges. Pfeiffer's office declined comment Friday.
Peter Harvey, one of the advisers to Goodell, said the NFL had access to forensic electronic evidence that prosecutors didn't have. Harvey said an example was proof that photographs were taken by Thompson the same day she alleged that she was injured by Elliott.
Harvey also said some of the explanations offered by Elliott's representatives, including that Thompson was injured in a fight with a woman or by falling down stairs, weren't supported by evidence.
"It is also important to note that, while there may be conflicting testimonial evidence regarding the nature and substance of conversations, there is no dispute that you and Ms. Thompson were together in the same location on the dates identified, and no evidence to suggest that anyone else could have caused these injuries," the letter said.
Cowboys owner Jerry Jones had maintained he hadn't seen anything to indicate Elliott was guilty of domestic violence and he didn't think his star back would be suspended. Jones made the comments several times, including during festivities last weekend when he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
The ruling potentially could put Goodell and Jones, a strong supporter of the commissioner, at odds the same way Goodell clashed with New England owner Robert Kraft over last year's four-game suspension for quarterback Tom Brady over the "Deflategate" controversy.
The NFL revised its personal conduct policy in 2014 following sharp criticism of a case involving former Baltimore running back Ray Rice. The policy gave Goodell authority to suspend players for at least six games in domestic cases, with or without a conviction.
The NFL's letter to Elliott cited the Ohio case as well as an incident this past spring when Elliott was caught on video pulling down a woman's shirt while watching a St. Patrick's Day parade in Dallas.
While the league said the St. Patrick's Day incident wasn't part of the decision on discipline, it reflected poorly on Elliott.
"You should understand, however, that your behavior during this event was inappropriate and disturbing, and reflected a lack of respect for women," Todd Jones wrote. "When viewed together with the July incidents, it suggests a pattern of poor judgment and behavior for which effective intervention is necessary for your personal and professional welfare."
Elliott has had a string of off-field issues in the year since the Cowboys made him the fourth overall pick in the 2016 draft. He was seen in a legal marijuana shop during the preseason in Seattle last year and was also involved in a bar fight in Dallas a week before training camp this year.
An All-Pro as a rookie, Elliott finished with 1,631 yards rushing in helping the Cowboys to the best record in the NFC at 13-3 before a divisional playoff loss to Green Bay. He set rookie franchise records for yards, rushing touchdowns (15) and total touchdowns (16).
The NFL's letter tried to offer Elliott some encouragement.
"While this is a serious matter, it by no means suggests a belief that you cannot have a long and productive career in the NFL," the letter said. "Our goal is for you to have as successful a career as possible."
The Associated Press provided this story.