As U.S. immigration enforcement becomes stricter under the Trump administration, more immigrant families are cutting ties with health care services and other critical government programs, according to child advocates who work with these families.
In Texas, researchers studying the issue say it's a major reason why more children are going without health insurance.
Ana, who lives in Central Texas with her husband and two children, has been increasingly hesitant to seek help from the government. In particular, she's worried about getting help for her 9-year-old daughter, Sara, who was diagnosed with autism a few years ago.
Ana entered the country without documentation about 10 years ago, which is why NPR has agreed not to use her last name. Both her children were born in the U.S. and have been covered by Medicaid for years. But ever since President Trump took office, Ana has only been using the program for basics — such as checkups and vaccinations for the kids.
This decision to forgo care comes at a cost. Managing Sara's behavior has been challenging, even after the diagnosis brought some clarity about what was going on. Sara acts out and has tantrums, sometimes in public places. Ana finds it difficult to soothe her daughter, and it's become more awkward as Sara grows.
"To other people, Sara just seems spoiled or a brat," Ana says.
After the diagnosis, Ana felt unsure about her next steps. She eventually went to a nonprofit in Austin that guides and supports parents whose children have disabilities. It's called Vela ("candle" in Spanish).
At Vela, Ana learned about a range of services Sara could get access to via her Medicaid plan — including therapy to help the child communicate better.
However, the thought of asking for more government services for her daughter increased Ana's anxiety. "I am looking for groups who are not associated with the government," Ana explains.
Ana is in the middle of the long, expensive legal process of applying for permanent resident status, known informally as a "green card." Recently, the Trump administration announced that it may tighten part of this process – the "public charge" assessment. The assessment scrutinizes how many government services a green card applicant currently uses — or might use later in life. If a person uses many government services, they could pose a net financial burden on the federal budget — or so goes the rationale. The government's algorithms are complex, but "public charge" is part of the determination for who gets a green card and who doesn't.
The rule change proposed by the Trump administration — which may not come to pass — has already led many applicants, or would-be applicants, to be wary of all government services, even those that wouldn't affect their applications.
"I am afraid they will not give me a legal resident status," Ana says.
Her husband already has a green card, and the couple is determined to not jeopardize Ana's ongoing application. So they have decided — just to be safe — to avoid seeking any more help from the government. That's even though their daughter, who is a citizen, needs more therapy than she's getting right now.
"I feel bad that I have to do that," Ana says.
She says she would love to treat her daughter's autism, but has decided that there is nothing more important than getting that green card, in order to keep the family together in the U.S.
"I'm running into families that, when it's time for re-enrollment or reapplication, they are pausing and they are questioning if they should," says Nadine Rueb, a clinical social worker dealing with Ana's case at Vela.
Rueb says a range of fears are behind immigrants avoidance of government services. Some are staying under the radar to avoid immediate deportation. Others are more like Ana — they just want to be in the best position possible to finally get permanent legal status and move on with their lives.
"The climate of fear is so pervasive at this point, and there is so much misinformation out there," says Cheasty Anderson, a senior policy associate with the Children's Defense Fund in Texas.
Anderson thinks the parents' fears have led to an uptick in children going without health coverage in Texas.
A recent study from Georgetown University's Center for Children and Families found that one out of every five uninsured kids in the U.S. lives in Texas. And a big percentage of those uninsured children are Latino.
The report shows that after years of steady decline, the number (and percentage) of uninsured children in the U.S. increased in 2017, the first year of Trump's presidency. Nationally, 5 percent of all kids are uninsured — and in Texas the rate rose to 10.7 percent, up from 9.8 percent in 2016.
Joan Alker, the author of the Georgetown report, says the Trump administration's effort to crack down on both legal and illegal immigration is one of many factors driving up the uninsured rates. And it's especially perceptible in Texas, where a quarter of children have a parent who is either undocumented, or who is trying to become a legal resident.
"For these mixed-status families, there is likely a heightened fear of interacting with the government, and this may be deterring them from signing up their eligible children up for government-sponsored health care," Alker said in a phone call with reporters in November, when the report was released.
Anderson says the repercussions fall hardest on kids with disabilities — kids who need services.
"Texas is proud to be Texas in so many ways, but this is one way in which we are failing ourselves," she says.
From the perspective of Rueb, a disability rights specialist, timing is an essential issue for these children.
"The sooner you catch [the diagnosis or condition], the sooner you support the child [and] the sooner you support the family," Rueb says. "I think it's just a win-win for everybody. You are supporting the emotions of the family, and then that supports the child."
For now, Ana says she's relying on the services offered by her daughter's public school — which aren't counted in the federal government's "public charge" assessment. And she'll keep doing that until she gets that green card.
This story is part of NPR's reporting partnership with KUT and Kaiser Health News.
SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
Fear is leading many immigrant families to cut their ties with health care and other critical government programs. Researchers in Texas say that's one reason why there are more children going without health insurance. Ashley Lopez of member station KUT has the story of one family that is avoiding care even though a little girl needs treatment.
ASHLEY LOPEZ, BYLINE: Ana lives in central Texas with her husband and two kids. Danny is a playful, healthy toddler. Sara is 9 years old and was diagnosed with autism a few years ago. Ana says at first it was unclear what was wrong with Sara exactly. When she acted out, it was really hard to calm her down.
ANA: (Speaking Spanish).
LOPEZ: "To other people, Sara just seemed spoiled or a brat," Ana says. After the diagnosis, though, Ana felt a little lost about what to do next. She went to a nonprofit in Austin that helps parents whose children have disabilities. It's called Vela, which means candle in Spanish. There, Ana learned about all these different therapies Sara could get through Medicaid, therapies that would help her communicate better, among other things. But that was right around the time of Trump's election, and immigrants like Ana were nervous.
ANA: (Speaking Spanish).
LOPEZ: "I'm looking for groups who are not associated with the government," she says. Ana entered the country without documentation about 10 years ago, so that's why we aren't using her last name. Both her kids were born in the U.S. and automatically got Medicaid coverage. But ever since President Trump took office, Ana has only been using it for the kids' checkups and vaccinations.
ANA: (Speaking Spanish).
LOPEZ: "I'm afraid they will not give me a legal resident status," she says. Ana's husband has a green card, and she's in the process of getting one, too, but the rules could be changing. The Trump administration wants to make it harder for people to get a green card if they use government services or even if they might use them in the future. And so Ana and her husband have decided, just to be safe, not to seek out any more help from the government, even if her daughter, who is a citizen, needs more therapy than she's getting right now.
ANA: (Speaking Spanish).
LOPEZ: "I feel bad doing that," Ana says. For Ana, treating her daughter's autism would be great, but there's nothing more important than keeping the family together. Nadine Reub (ph) works with Ana at Vela. She says she's seeing this a lot.
NADINE REUB: I'm running into families that when it's time for re-enrollment or re-application, they're pausing, and they're questioning if they should.
LOPEZ: Reub says immigrants are foregoing government services for lots of reasons. Some are trying to stay under the radar to avoid immediate deportation. Others are more like Ana. They just want to be in the best position possible to finally get legal status and move on with their lives. And in Texas, a quarter of children have a parent who is like that, undocumented or trying to become a legal resident. Cheasty Anderson works with the Children's Defense Fund in Texas. She thinks the parents' fears have led to more kids going without health coverage in Texas.
CHEASTY ANDERSON: The climate of fear is so pervasive at this point, and there is so much misinformation out there.
LOPEZ: A recent study from Georgetown found that 1 out of every 5 uninsured kids in the U.S. lives in Texas, and a big percentage of them are Latino. Anderson says this is all happening despite the state's vibrant economy.
ANDERSON: Texas is proud to be Texas in so many ways, but this is one way in which we are failing ourselves.
LOPEZ: Anderson says the failures fall hardest on kids with disabilities. That also worries Nadine Reub, the advocate who is working with Ana. She says when it comes to treating childhood disabilities, earlier is better.
REUB: The sooner you catch it, the sooner you support the child, the sooner you support the family. I think it's just a win-win for everybody, right? You're supporting the emotions of the family and then that supports the child.
LOPEZ: But Ana is still uncomfortable asking Medicaid to do more for Sara. For now, she's relying on services from her daughter's school, and she'll keep doing that until she gets that green card. For NPR News, I'm Ashley Lopez in Austin.
SIMON: And that story is part of a reporting partnership between NPR, KUT and Kaiser Health News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.